CONTACT US TODAY

26 JOURNAL SQUARE PLAZA, SUITE 1201

JERSEY CITY, NEW JERSEY 07306

T: 201-253-6330

F: 201-221-8872

INFO@NOVELLAW.COM

© 2019 - NOVEL LAW, LLC.

VIEWING THIS WEBSITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE THE FORMATION OF AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP AND THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THIS WEBSITE SHOULD NOT BE CONSTRUED AS FORMAL LEGAL ADVICE.

No aspect of the above advertisement(s): (American Institute of Criminal Law Attorneys, Avvo, Association of America's Top Lawyers, Justia and Super Lawyers) has been approved by the Supreme Court of NJ.

2C:43-1. Degrees of Crimes. a. Crimes defined by this code are classified, for the purpose of sentence, into four degrees, as follows: 

 

(1) Crimes of the first degree; 

 

(2) Crimes of the second degree; 

 

(3) Crimes of the third degree; and 

 

(4) Crimes of the fourth degree. 

 

A crime is of the first, second, third or fourth degree when it is so designated by the code. An offense, declared to be a crime, without specification of degree, is of the fourth degree. 

 

b. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a crime defined by any statute of this State other than this code and designated as a high misdemeanor shall constitute for the purpose of sentence a crime of the third degree. Except as provided in sections 2C:1-4c. and 2C:1-5b. and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a crime defined by any statute of this State other than this code and designated as a misdemeanor shall constitute for the purpose of sentence a crime of the fourth degree. 

 

L.1978, c.95; amended by L. 1979, c. 178, s. 81; 1987, c. 106, s. 8. 

2C:43-2 Sentence in accordance with code; authorized dispositions.

 

Sentence in accordance with code; authorized dispositions. a. Except as otherwise provided by this code, all persons convicted of an offense or offenses shall be sentenced in accordance with this chapter.

 

b.Except as provided in subsection a. of this section and subject to the applicable provisions of the code, the court may suspend the imposition of sentence on a person who has been convicted of an offense, or may sentence him as follows:

 

(1)To pay a fine or make restitution authorized by N.J.S.2C:43-3 or P.L.1997, c.253 (C.2C:43-3.4 et al.); or

 

(2)Except as provided in subsection g. of this section, to be placed on probation and, in the case of a person convicted of a crime, to imprisonment for a term fixed by the court not exceeding 364 days to be served as a condition of probation, or in the case of a person convicted of a disorderly persons offense, to imprisonment for a term fixed by the court not exceeding 90 days to be served as a condition of probation; or

 

(3)To imprisonment for a term authorized by sections 2C:11-3, 2C:43-5, 2C:43-6, 2C:43-7, and 2C:43-8 or 2C:44-5; or

 

(4)To pay a fine, make restitution and probation, or fine, restitution and imprisonment; or

 

(5)To release under supervision in the community or to require the performance of community-related service; or

 

(6)To a halfway house or other residential facility in the community, including agencies which are not operated by the Department of Human Services; or

 

(7)To imprisonment at night or on weekends with liberty to work or to participate in training or educational programs.

 

c.Instead of or in addition to any disposition made according to this section, the court may postpone, suspend, or revoke for a period not to exceed two years the driver's license, registration certificate, or both of any person convicted of a crime, disorderly persons offense, or petty disorderly persons offense in the course of which a motor vehicle was used. In imposing this disposition and in deciding the duration of the postponement, suspension, or revocation, the court shall consider the severity of the crime or offense and the potential effect of the loss of driving privileges on the person's ability to be rehabilitated. Any postponement, suspension, or revocation shall be imposed consecutively with any custodial sentence.

 

d.This chapter does not deprive the court of any authority conferred by law to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a person from office, or impose any other civil penalty. Such a judgment or order may be included in the sentence.

 

e.The court shall state on the record the reasons for imposing the sentence, including its findings pursuant to the criteria for withholding or imposing imprisonment or fines under sections 2C:44-1 to 2C:44-3, where imprisonment is imposed, consideration of the defendant's eligibility for release under the law governing parole and the factual basis supporting its findings of particular aggravating or mitigating factors affecting sentence.

 

f.The court shall explain the parole laws as they apply to the sentence and shall state:

 

(1)the approximate period of time in years and months the defendant will serve in custody before parole eligibility;

 

(2)the jail credits or the amount of time the defendant has already served;

 

(3)that the defendant may be entitled to good time and work credits; and

 

(4)that the defendant may be eligible for participation in the Intensive Supervision Program.

 

g.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection b. of this section, a court imposing sentence on a defendant who has been convicted of any offense enumerated in subsection a. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4) may not sentence the defendant to be placed on probation.

 

L.1978, c.95; amended 1979, c.178, s.82; 1981, c.269, s.2; 1983, c.124, s.1; 1987, c.106, s.9; 1994, c.155; 1997, c.253, s.1; 2003, c.267, s.5.

2C:43-3 Fines and restitutions

2C:43-3. Fines and Restitutions. A person who has been convicted of an offense may be sentenced to pay a fine, to make restitution, or both, such fine not to exceed:

 

a. (1) $200,000.00 when the conviction is of a crime of the first degree;

 

(2) $150,000.00 when the conviction is of a crime of the second degree;

 

b. (1) $15,000.00 when the conviction is of a crime of the third degree;

 

(2) $10,000.00 when the conviction is of a crime of the fourth degree;

 

c. $1,000.00, when the conviction is of a disorderly persons offense;

 

d. $500.00, when the conviction is of a petty disorderly persons offense;

 

e. Any higher amount equal to double the pecuniary gain to the offender or loss to the victim caused by the conduct constituting the offense by the offender. In such case the court shall make a finding as to the amount of the gain or loss, and if the record does not contain sufficient evidence to support such a finding the court may conduct a hearing upon the issue. For purposes of this section the term "gain" means the amount of money or the value of property derived by the offender and "loss" means the amount of value separated from the victim or the amount of any payment owed to the victim and avoided or evaded and includes any reasonable and necessary expense incurred by the owner in recovering or replacing lost, stolen or damaged property, or recovering any payment avoided or evaded, and, with respect to property of a research facility, includes the cost of repeating an interrupted or invalidated experiment or loss of profits. The term "victim" shall mean a person who suffers a personal physical or psychological injury or death or incurs loss of or injury to personal or real property as a result of a crime committed against that person, or in the case of a homicide, the nearest relative of the victim. The terms "gain" and "loss" shall also mean, where appropriate, the amount of any tax, fee, penalty and interest avoided, evaded, or otherwise unpaid or improperly retained or disposed of;

 

f. Any higher amount specifically authorized by another section of this code or any other statute;

 

g. Up to twice the amounts authorized in subsection a., b., c. or d. of this section, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction of any tax offense defined in Title 54 of the Revised Statutes or Title 54A of the New Jersey Statutes, as amended and supplemented, or of any offense defined in chapter 20 or 21 of this code;

 

h. In the case of violations of chapter 35, any higher amount equal to three times the street value of the controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analog. The street value for purposes of this section shall be determined pursuant to subsection e. of N.J.S.2C:44-2.

 

The restitution ordered paid to the victim shall not exceed the victim's loss, except that in any case involving the failure to pay any State tax, the amount of restitution to the State shall be the full amount of the tax avoided or evaded, including full civil penalties and interest as provided by law. In any case where the victim of the offense is any department or division of State government, the court shall order restitution to the victim. Any restitution imposed on a person shall be in addition to any fine which may be imposed pursuant to this section.

 

L.1978, c.95; amended 1979, c.178, s.83; 1981, c.290, s.37; 1987, c.76, s.34; 1987, c.106, s.10; 1991, c.329, s.2; 1995, c.20, s.6; 1995, c.417, s.2; 1997, c.181, s.12.

2C:43-3.5 Additional penalty for certain offenses.

 

1. a. In addition to any term or condition that may be included in an agreement for supervisory treatment pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-13 or imposed as a term or condition of conditional discharge pursuant to N.J.S.2C:36A-1 for a violation of any offense defined in chapter 35 or 36 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes, each participant shall be assessed a penalty of $50 for each adjudication or conviction.

 

b.All penalties provided by this section shall be collected as provided for collection of fines and restitutions in section 3 of P.L.1979, c.396 (C.2C:46-4) and shall be forwarded to the Department of the Treasury as provided in subsection c. of this section.

 

c.All monies collected pursuant to this section shall be forwarded to the Department of the Treasury to be deposited in the " Drug Abuse Education Fund" established pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1999, c.12 (C.54A:9-25.12).

 

d.Monies in the fund shall be appropriated by the Legislature on an annual basis in the manner and for the purposes prescribed by section 2 of P.L.1999, c.12 (C.54A:9-25.13).

 

L.1999,c.295,s.1.

2C:43-5. Young adult offenders

Any person who, at the time of sentencing, is less than 26 years of age and who has been convicted of a crime may be sentenced to an indeterminate term at the Youth Correctional Institution Complex, in accordance with R.S. 30:4-146 et seq., in the case of men, and to the Correctional Institution for Women, in accordance with R.S. 30:4-153 et seq., in the case of women, instead of the sentences otherwise authorized by the code. This section shall not apply to any person less than 26 years of age at the time of sentencing who qualifies for a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment without eligibility for parole, pursuant to subsection c. of N.J.S. 2C:43-6; however, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection c. of N.J.S. 2C:43-6, the mandatory minimum term may be served at the Youth Correctional Institution Complex or the Correctional Institution for Women.

 

L.1978, c. 95, s. 2C:43-5, eff. Sept. 1, 1979. Amended by L.1979, c. 178, s. 84, eff. Sept. 1, 1979; L.1983, c. 92, s. 1, eff. March 11, 1983.

2C:43-6 Sentence of imprisonment for crime; ordinary terms; mandatory terms.

 

2C:43-6. a. Except as otherwise provided, a person who has been convicted of a crime may be sentenced to imprisonment, as follows:

 

(1)In the case of a crime of the first degree, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court and shall be between 10 years and 20 years;

 

(2)In the case of a crime of the second degree, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court and shall be between five years and 10 years;

 

(3)In the case of a crime of the third degree, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court and shall be between three years and five years;

 

(4)In the case of a crime of the fourth degree, for a specific term which shall be fixed by the court and shall not exceed 18 months.

 

b.As part of a sentence for any crime, where the court is clearly convinced that the aggravating factors substantially outweigh the mitigating factors, as set forth in subsections a. and b. of 2C:44-1, or the court finds that the aggravating factor set forth in paragraph (5) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:44-1 applies, the court may fix a minimum term not to exceed one-half of the term set pursuant to subsection a., or one-half of the term set pursuant to a maximum period of incarceration for a crime set forth in any statute other than this code, during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole; provided that no defendant shall be eligible for parole at a date earlier than otherwise provided by the law governing parole.

 

c.A person who has been convicted under subsection b. or d. of N.J.S.2C:39-3, subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:39-4, subsection a. of section 1 of P.L.1998, c.26 (C.2C:39-4.1), subsection a., b. or c. of N.J.S.2C:39-5, subsection a. or paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection b. of section 6 of P.L.1979, c.179 (C.2C:39-7), or subsection a., b., e. or g. of N.J.S.2C:39-9, or of a crime under any of the following sections: 2C:11-3, 2C:11-4, 2C:12-1b., 2C:13-1, 2C:14-2a., 2C:14-3a., 2C:15-1, 2C:18-2, 2C:29-5, who, while in the course of committing or attempting to commit the crime, including the immediate flight therefrom, used or was in possession of a firearm as defined in 2C:39-1f., shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment by the court. The term of imprisonment shall include the imposition of a minimum term. The minimum term shall be fixed at, or between, one-third and one-half of the sentence imposed by the court or three years, whichever is greater, or 18 months in the case of a fourth degree crime, during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole.

 

The minimum terms established by this section shall not prevent the court from imposing presumptive terms of imprisonment pursuant to 2C:44-1f. (1) except in cases of crimes of the fourth degree.

 

A person who has been convicted of an offense enumerated by this subsection and who used or possessed a firearm during its commission, attempted commission or flight therefrom and who has been previously convicted of an offense involving the use or possession of a firearm as defined in 2C:44-3d., shall be sentenced by the court to an extended term as authorized by 2C:43-7c., notwithstanding that extended terms are ordinarily discretionary with the court.

 

d.The court shall not impose a mandatory sentence pursuant to subsection c. of this section, 2C:43-7c. or 2C:44-3d., unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing. At the hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing, the prosecutor shall establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the weapon used or possessed was a firearm. In making its finding, the court shall take judicial notice of any evidence, testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing, or other court proceedings and shall also consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

 

e.A person convicted of a third or subsequent offense involving State taxes under N.J.S.2C:20-9, N.J.S.2C:21-15, any other provision of this code, or under any of the provisions of Title 54 of the Revised Statutes, or Title 54A of the New Jersey Statutes, as amended and supplemented, shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment by the court. This shall not preclude an application for and imposition of an extended term of imprisonment under N.J.S.2C:44-3 if the provisions of that section are applicable to the offender.

 

f.A person convicted of manufacturing, distributing, dispensing or possessing with intent to distribute any dangerous substance or controlled substance analog under N.J.S.2C:35-5, of maintaining or operating a controlled dangerous substance production facility under N.J.S.2C:35-4, of employing a juvenile in a drug distribution scheme under N.J.S.2C:35-6, leader of a narcotics trafficking network under N.J.S.2C:35-3, or of distributing, dispensing or possessing with intent to distribute on or near school property or buses under section 1 of P.L.1987, c.101 (C.2C:35-7), who has been previously convicted of manufacturing, distributing, dispensing or possessing with intent to distribute a controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analog, shall upon application of the prosecuting attorney be sentenced by the court to an extended term as authorized by subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:43-7, notwithstanding that extended terms are ordinarily discretionary with the court. The term of imprisonment shall, except as may be provided in N.J.S.2C:35-12, include the imposition of a minimum term. The minimum term shall be fixed at, or between, one-third and one-half of the sentence imposed by the court or three years, whichever is greater, not less than seven years if the person is convicted of a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-6, or 18 months in the case of a fourth degree crime, during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole.

 

The court shall not impose an extended term pursuant to this subsection unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing. At the hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing, the prosecutor shall establish the ground therefor by a preponderance of the evidence. In making its finding, the court shall take judicial notice of any evidence, testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing, or other court proceedings and shall also consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

 

For the purpose of this subsection, a previous conviction exists where the actor has at any time been convicted under chapter 35 of this title or Title 24 of the Revised Statutes or under any similar statute of the United States, this State, or any other state for an offense that is substantially equivalent to N.J.S.2C:35-3, N.J.S.2C:35-4, N.J.S.2C:35-5, N.J.S.2C:35-6 or section 1 of P.L.1987, c.101 (C.2C:35-7).

 

g.Any person who has been convicted under subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:39-4 or of a crime under any of the following sections: N.J.S.2C:11-3, N.J.S.2C:11-4, N.J.S.2C:12-1b., N.J.S.2C:13-1, N.J.S.2C:14-2a., N.J.S.2C:14-3a., N.J.S.2C:15-1, N.J.S.2C:18-2, N.J.S.2C:29-5, N.J.S.2C:35-5 who, while in the course of committing or attempting to commit the crime, including the immediate flight therefrom, used or was in possession of a machine gun or assault firearm shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment by the court. The term of imprisonment shall include the imposition of a minimum term. The minimum term shall be fixed at 10 years for a crime of the first or second degree, five years for a crime of the third degree, or 18 months in the case of a fourth degree crime, during which the defendant shall be ineligible for parole.

 

The minimum terms established by this section shall not prevent the court from imposing presumptive terms of imprisonment pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection f. of N.J.S.2C:44-1 for crimes of the first degree.

 

A person who has been convicted of an offense enumerated in this subsection and who used or possessed a machine gun or assault firearm during its commission, attempted commission or flight therefrom and who has been previously convicted of an offense involving the use or possession of any firearm as defined in subsection d. of N.J.S.2C:44-3, shall be sentenced by the court to an extended term as authorized by subsection d. of N.J.S.2C:43-7, notwithstanding that extended terms are ordinarily discretionary with the court.

 

h.The court shall not impose a mandatory sentence pursuant to subsection g. of this section, subsection d. of N.J.S.2C:43-7 or N.J.S.2C:44-3, unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing. At the hearing, which may occur at the time of sentencing, the prosecutor shall establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the weapon used or possessed was a machine gun or assault firearm. In making its finding, the court shall take judicial notice of any evidence, testimony or information adduced at the trial, plea hearing, or other court proceedings and shall also consider the presentence report and any other relevant information.

 

i.A person who has been convicted under paragraph (6) of subsection b. of 2C:12-1 of causing bodily injury while eluding shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment by the court. The term of imprisonment shall include the imposition of a minimum term. The minimum term shall be fixed at, or between one-third and one-half of the sentence imposed by the court. The minimum term established by this subsection shall not prevent the court from imposing a presumptive term of imprisonment pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection f. of 2C:44-1. 

 

Amended 1979, c.178, s.85; 1981, c.31, s.1; 1981, c.290, s.38; 1981, c.569, s.1; 1982, c.119, s.1; 1987, c.76, s.35; 1987, c.106, s.12; 1988, c.44, s.13; 1990, c.32, s.6; 1993, c.219, s.6; 2007, c.341, s.5.

2C:43-6.2. Probation; reduction of mandatory minimum term 

1. On a motion by the prosecutor made to the assignment judge that the imposition of a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment under (a) subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:43-6 for a defendant who has not previously been convicted of an offense under that subsection, or (b) subsection e. of N.J.S.2C:39-10 for a defendant who has not previously been convicted of an offense under chapter 39 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes, does not serve the interests of justice, the assignment judge shall place the defendant on probation pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:43-2 or reduce to one year the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment during which the defendant will be ineligible for parole. The sentencing court may also refer a case of a defendant who has not previously been convicted of an offense under that subsection to the assignment judge, with the approval of the prosecutor, if the sentencing court believes that the interests of justice would not be served by the imposition of a mandatory minimum term. 

 

L.1989,c.53,s.1; amended 1993,c.49,s.2. 

2C:43-6.3. Review of sentence 

Any person who, on the effective date of this act, is serving a mandatory minimum sentence as provided for by subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:43-6, who has not been previously convicted under that subsection, and has not had his sentence suspended or been paroled or discharged, may move to have his sentence reviewed by the assignment judge for the sentencing court. If the prosecutor agrees that the sentence under review does not serve the interests of justice, the judge shall reduce the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment without parole eligibility to one year or place the person on probation pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:43-2. 

 

L.1989, c.53, s.2. 

2C:43-6.4 Special sentence of parole supervision for life.
2.a. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, a judge imposing sentence on a person who has been convicted of aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, aggravated criminal sexual contact, kidnapping pursuant to paragraph (2) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:13-1, endangering the welfare of a child by engaging in sexual conduct which would impair or debauch the morals of the child pursuant to subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:24-4, endangering the welfare of a child pursuant to paragraph (3) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:24-4, luring or an attempt to commit any of these offenses shall include, in addition to any sentence authorized by this Code, a special sentence of parole supervision for life.

b.The special sentence of parole supervision for life required by this section shall commence immediately upon the defendant's release from incarceration. If the defendant is serving a sentence of incarceration for another offense at the time he completes the custodial portion of the sentence imposed on the present offense, the special sentence of parole supervision for life shall not commence until the defendant is actually released from incarceration for the other offense. Persons serving a special sentence of parole supervision for life shall remain in the legal custody of the Commissioner of Corrections, shall be supervised by the Division of Parole of the State Parole Board, shall be subject to the provisions and conditions set forth in subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b) and sections 15 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.59 through 30:4-123.63 and 30:4-123.65), and shall be subject to conditions appropriate to protect the public and foster rehabilitation. Such conditions may include the requirement that the person comply with the conditions set forth in subsection f. of this section concerning use of a computer or other device with access to the Internet. If the defendant violates a condition of a special sentence of parole supervision for life, the defendant shall be subject to the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and 30:4-123.65), and for the purpose of calculating the limitation on time served pursuant to section 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.65) the custodial term imposed upon the defendant related to the special sentence of parole supervision for life shall be deemed to be a term of life imprisonment. When the court suspends the imposition of sentence on a defendant who has been convicted of any offense enumerated in subsection a. of this section, the court may not suspend imposition of the special sentence of parole supervision for life, which shall commence immediately, with the Division of Parole of the State Parole Board maintaining supervision over that defendant, including the defendant's compliance with any conditions imposed by the court pursuant to N.J.S.2C:45-1, in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. Nothing contained in this subsection shall prevent the court from at any time proceeding under the provisions of N.J.S.2C:45-1 through 2C:45-4 against any such defendant for a violation of any conditions imposed by the court when it suspended imposition of sentence, or prevent the Division of Parole from proceeding under the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and C.30:4-123.65) against any such defendant for a violation of any conditions of the special sentence of parole supervision for life, including the conditions imposed by the court pursuant to N.J.S.2C:45-1.

In any such proceeding by the Division of Parole, the provisions of subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b) authorizing revocation and return to prison shall be applicable to such a defendant, notwithstanding that the defendant may not have been sentenced to or served any portion of a custodial term for conviction of an offense enumerated in subsection a. of this section.

c.A person sentenced to a term of parole supervision for life may petition the Superior Court for release from that parole supervision. The judge may grant a petition for release from a special sentence of parole supervision for life only upon proof by clear and convincing evidence that the person has not committed a crime for 15 years since the last conviction or release from incarceration, whichever is later, and that the person is not likely to pose a threat to the safety of others if released from parole supervision. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 22 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.66), a person sentenced to a term of parole supervision for life may be released from that parole supervision term only by court order as provided in this subsection.

d.A person who violates a condition of a special sentence imposed pursuant to this section without good cause is guilty of a crime of the fourth degree. Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, a person sentenced pursuant to this subsection shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment, unless the court is clearly convinced that the interests of justice so far outweigh the need to deter this conduct and the interest in public safety that a sentence to imprisonment would be a manifest injustice. Nothing in this subsection shall preclude subjecting a person who violates any condition of a special sentence of parole supervision for life to the provisions of sections 16 through 19 and 21 of P.L.1979, c.441 (C.30:4-123.60 through 30:4-123.63 and C.30:4-123.65) pursuant to the provisions of subsection c. of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b).

e.A person who, while serving a special sentence of parole supervision for life imposed pursuant to this section, commits a violation of N.J.S.2C:11-3, N.J.S.2C:11-4, N.J.S.2C:11-5, subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:12-1, N.J.S.2C:13-1, section 1 of P.L.1993, c.291 (C.2C:13-6), N.J.S.2C:14-2, N.J.S.2C:14-3, N.J.S.2C:24-4, N.J.S.2C:18-2 when the offense is a crime of the second degree, or subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:39-4 shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment as set forth in N.J.S.2C:43-7, which term shall, notwithstanding the provisions of N.J.S.2C:43-7 or any other law, be served in its entirety prior to the person's resumption of the term of parole supervision for life.

f.The special sentence of parole supervision for life required by this section may include any of the following Internet access conditions:

(1)Prohibit the person from accessing or using a computer or any other device with Internet capability without the prior written approval of the court except the person may use a computer or any other device with Internet capability in connection with that person's employment or search for employment with the prior approval of the person's parole officer;

(2)Require the person to submit to periodic unannounced examinations of the person's computer or any other device with Internet capability by a parole officer, law enforcement officer or assigned computer or information technology specialist, including the retrieval and copying of all data from the computer or device and any internal or external peripherals and removal of such information, equipment or device to conduct a more thorough inspection;

(3)Require the person to submit to the installation on the person's computer or device with Internet capability, at the person's expense, one or more hardware or software systems to monitor the Internet use; and

(4)Require the person to submit to any other appropriate restrictions concerning the person's use or access of a computer or any other device with Internet capability.

L.1994,c.130,s.2; amended 2003, c.267, s.1; 2007, c.219, s.3.

 

2C:43-6.5 Mandatory minimum prison term for public officer, employee convicted of certain crimes; waiver, reduction.

 

6. a. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:43-6 and except as otherwise provided in subsection c. of this section, a person who serves or has served as a public officer or employee under the government of this State, or any political subdivision thereof, who is convicted of a crime that involves or touches such office or employment as set forth in subsection b. of this section, shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment without eligibility for parole as follows: for a crime of the fourth degree, the mandatory minimum term shall be one year; for a crime of the third degree, two years; for a crime of the second degree, five years; and for a crime of the first degree, 10 years; unless the provisions of any other law provide for a higher mandatory minimum term. As used in this subsection, "a crime that involves or touches such office or employment" means that the crime was related directly to the person's performance in, or circumstances flowing from, the specific public office or employment held by the person.

 

b.Subsection a. of this section applies to a conviction of any of the following crimes: 

 

(1)Paragraph (4) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:13-5, criminal coercion;

 

(2)N.J.S.2C:20-4, theft by deception, if the amount involved exceeds $10,000;

 

(3)Subsection d. of N.J.S.2C:20-5, theft by extortion;

 

(4)N.J.S.2C:20-9, theft by failure to make required disposition of property received, if the amount involved exceeds $10,000; 

 

(5)N.J.S.2C:21-10, commercial bribery;

 

(6)Section 3 of P.L.1994, c.121 (C.2C:21-25), money laundering;

 

(7)Section 97 of P.L.1999, c.440 (C.2C:21-34), false contract payment claims;

 

(8)N.J.S.2C:27-2, bribery in official matters;

 

(9)N.J.S.2C:27-3, threats and other improper influence in official and political matters;

 

(10) Section 100 of P.L.1999, c.440 (C.2C:27-9), unlawful official business transaction where interest is involved;

 

(11) Section 5 of P.L.2003, c.255 (C.2C:27-10), acceptance or receipt of unlawful benefit by public servant for official behavior;

 

(12) Section 6 of P.L.2003, c.255 (C.2C:27-11), offer of unlawful benefit to public servant for official behavior;

 

(13) N.J.S.2C:28-1, perjury; 

 

(14) N.J.S.2C:28-5, tampering with witnesses;

 

(15) N.J.S.2C:28-7, tampering with public records or information;

 

(16) N.J.S.2C:29-4, compounding;

 

(17) N.J.S.2C:30-2, official misconduct;

 

(18) N.J.S.2C:30-3, speculating or wagering on official action or information; or

 

(19) Section 3 of P.L.2003, c.31 (C.2C:30-7), pattern of official misconduct.

 

c. (1) On motion by the prosecutor stating that the defendant has provided substantial assistance in a criminal investigation or prosecution of another person, the court may waive or reduce the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment required by subsection a. of this section. The appropriate waiver or reduction shall be determined by the court for reasons stated that may include, but are not limited to, consideration of the following:

 

(i)the court's evaluation of the significance and usefulness of the defendant's assistance, giving substantial weight to the prosecutor's evaluation of the assistance rendered; 

 

(ii)the truthfulness, completeness, and reliability of any information or testimony provided by the defendant;

 

(iii) the nature and extent of the defendant's assistance;

 

(iv)any injury suffered, or any danger or risk of injury to the defendant or his family resulting from his assistance;

 

(v)the timeliness of the defendant's assistance.

 

In making such a determination, the court shall give substantial weight to the prosecutor's evaluation of the extent of the defendant's assistance, particularly where the extent and value of the assistance are difficult to ascertain.

 

(2)If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that extraordinary circumstances exist such that imposition of a mandatory minimum term would be a serious injustice which overrides the need to deter such conduct in others, the court may waive or reduce the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment required by subsection a. of this section. In making any such finding, the court must state with specificity its reasons for waiving or reducing the mandatory minimum sentence that would otherwise apply.

 

(3)If, pursuant to paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection, the court waives or reduces the mandatory minimum term required by subsection a. of this section, such sentence shall not become final for 10 days in order to permit the appeal of the sentence by the prosecution.

 

d. (1) A prosecutor shall not recommend the admission into or consent to the referral to a pretrial intervention program of a person who serves or has served as a public officer or employee under the government of this State, or any political subdivision thereof, who is charged with a crime that involves or touches such office or employment as set forth in subsection b. of this section, without the prior approval of the Attorney General.

 

(2)A person who serves or has served as a public officer or employee under the government of this State, or any political subdivision thereof, who is convicted of a crime that involves or touches such office or employment as set forth in subsection b. of this section shall be ineligible for participation in any program of intensive supervision during any period of parole ineligibility.

 

e.The Attorney General shall develop guidelines to ensure the uniform exercise of discretion in making determinations regarding the waiver or reduction of a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection c. of this section and participation in a pretrial intervention program pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection d. of this section.

 

L.2007, c.49, s.6.

2C:43-6.6 Internet access conditions for certain sex offenders; fourth degree crime.

1. a. In the case of a person who has been convicted, adjudicated delinquent or found not guilty by reason of insanity for the commission of a sex offense as defined in subsection b. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.133 (C.2C:7-2), and who is required to register as provided in subsections c. and d. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.133 (C.2C:7-2), or who is serving a special sentence of community or parole supervision for life as provided in section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4), or who has been convicted, adjudicated delinquent or found not guilty by reason of insanity for a violation of N.J.S.2C:34-3, and where the trier of fact makes a finding that a computer or any other device with Internet capability was used to facilitate the commission of the crime the court shall, in addition to any other disposition, order the following Internet access conditions:

 

(1)Prohibit the person from accessing or using a computer or any other device with Internet capability without the prior written approval of the court except, if such person is on probation or parole, the person may use a computer or any other device with Internet capability in connection with that person's employment or search for employment with the prior approval of the person's probation or parole officer;

 

(2)Require the person to submit to periodic unannounced examinations of the person's computer or any other device with Internet capability by a probation officer, parole officer, law enforcement officer or assigned computer or information technology specialist, including the retrieval and copying of all data from the computer or device and any internal or external peripherals and removal of such information, equipment or device to conduct a more thorough inspection;

 

(3)Require the person to submit to the installation on the person's computer or device with Internet capability, at the person's expense, one or more hardware or software systems to monitor the Internet use; and

 

(4)Require the person to submit to any other appropriate restrictions concerning the person's use or access of a computer or any other device with Internet capability.

 

b.A person who fails to comply with the Internet access conditions set forth in this section shall be guilty of a crime of the fourth degree.

 

c.The appropriate agency heads shall promulgate guidelines which set forth standards to guide agency action in regard to the specific Internet access conditions which may be imposed on a person pursuant to the provisions of this act. 

 

d.The Attorney General or the County Prosecutor may petition the court to impose restrictions pursuant to this section upon any person who is required to register as provided in section 2 of P.L.1994, c.133 (C.2C:7-2) for a sex offense set forth in paragraph (3) of subsection b. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.133 (C.2C:7-2).

 

L.2007,c.219,s.1.

2C:43-7 Sentence of imprisonment for crime; extended terms.

 

2C:43-7. Sentence of Imprisonment for Crime; Extended Terms.

 

a.In the cases designated in section 2C:44-3, a person who has been convicted of a crime may be sentenced, and in the cases designated in subsection e. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4), in subsection b. of section 2 of P.L.1995, c.126 (C.2C:43-7.1) and in the cases designated in section 1 of P.L.1997, c.410 (C.2C:44-5.1), a person who has been convicted of a crime shall be sentenced, to an extended term of imprisonment, as follows:

 

(1)In case of aggravated manslaughter sentenced under subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:11-4; or kidnapping when sentenced as a crime of the first degree under paragraph (1) of subsection c. of 2C:13-1; or aggravated sexual assault if the person is eligible for an extended term pursuant to the provisions of subsection g. of N.J.S.2C:44-3 for a specific term of years which shall be between 30 years and life imprisonment;

 

(2)Except for the crime of murder and except as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, in the case of a crime of the first degree, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court and shall be between 20 years and life imprisonment;

 

(3)In the case of a crime of the second degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court between 10 and 20 years;

 

(4)In the case of a crime of the third degree, for a term which shall be fixed by the court between five and 10 years;

 

(5)In the case of a crime of the fourth degree pursuant to 2C:43-6c, 2C:43-6g and 2C:44-3d for a term of five years, and in the case of a crime of the fourth degree pursuant to any other provision of law for a term which shall be fixed by the court between three and five years; 

 

(6)In the case of the crime of murder, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court between 35 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant shall serve 35 years before being eligible for parole; 

 

(7)In the case of kidnapping under paragraph (2) of subsection c. of 2C:13-1, for a specific term of years which shall be fixed by the court between 30 years and life imprisonment, of which the defendant shall serve 30 years before being eligible for parole.

 

b.As part of a sentence for an extended term and notwithstanding the provisions of 2C:43-9, the court may fix a minimum term not to exceed one-half of the term set pursuant to subsection a. during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole or a term of 25 years during which time the defendant shall not be eligible for parole where the sentence imposed was life imprisonment; provided that no defendant shall be eligible for parole at a date earlier than otherwise provided by the law governing parole.

 

c.In the case of a person sentenced to an extended term pursuant to 2C:43-6c, 2C:43-6f and 2C:44-3d, the court shall impose a sentence within the ranges permitted by 2C:43-7a(2), (3), (4) or (5) according to the degree or nature of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced, which sentence shall include a minimum term which shall, except as may be specifically provided by N.J.S.2C:43-6f, be fixed at or between one-third and one-half of the sentence imposed by the court or five years, whichever is greater, during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole. Where the sentence imposed is life imprisonment, the court shall impose a minimum term of 25 years during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole, except that where the term of life imprisonment is imposed on a person convicted for a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-3, the term of parole ineligibility shall be 30 years.

 

d.In the case of a person sentenced to an extended term pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-6g, the court shall impose a sentence within the ranges permitted by N.J.S.2C:43-7a(2), (3), (4) or (5) according to the degree or nature of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced, which sentence shall include a minimum term which shall be fixed at 15 years for a crime of the first or second degree, eight years for a crime of the third degree, or five years for a crime of the fourth degree during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole. Where the sentence imposed is life imprisonment, the court shall impose a minimum term of 25 years during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole, except that where the term of life imprisonment is imposed on a person convicted of a violation of N.J.S.2C:35-3, the term of parole eligibility shall be 30 years.

 

L.1978, c.95; amended 1979, c.178, s.86; 1981, c.31, s.2; 1982, c.111, s.2; 1986, c.172, s.3; 1987, c.106, s.13; 1988, c.44, s.14; 1990, c.32, s.7; 1990, c.87, s.3; 1994, c.127, s.1; 1994, c.130, s.3; 1995, c.126, s.3; 1997, c.410, s.2; 2001, c.443, s.6; 2003, c.267, s.4.

 

2C:43-7.1. Life imprisonment without parole

 

2. a. Life Imprisonment Without Parole. A person convicted of a crime under any of the following: N.J.S.2C:11-3; subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:11-4; a crime of the first degree under N.J.S.2C:13-1, paragraphs (3) through (6) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2; N.J.S.2C:15-1; or section 1 of P.L.1993, c.221 (C.2C:15-2), who has been convicted of two or more crimes that were committed on prior and separate occasions, regardless of the dates of the convictions, under any of the foregoing sections or under any similar statute of the United States, this State, or any other state for a crime that is substantially equivalent to a crime under any of the foregoing sections, shall be sentenced to a term of life imprisonment by the court, with no eligibility for parole. 

 

b.Extended Term for Repeat Violent Offenders. A person shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-7 if: 

 

(1)The person is convicted of any of the following crimes: a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:11-4; a crime of the second or third degree under subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:12-1; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:13-1; a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-3 for aggravated criminal sexual contact under any of the circumstances set forth in paragraphs (3) through (6) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:15-1; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:18-2; or a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:39-4 for possession of a weapon with the purpose of using it unlawfully against the person of another, and the person has been convicted of any of the foregoing crimes or any of the crimes enumerated in subsection a. of this section or under any similar statute of the United States, this State, or any other state for a crime that is substantially equivalent to a crime enumerated in this subsection or in subsection a. of this section committed on two or more prior and separate occasions regardless of the dates of the convictions; or 

 

(2)The person is convicted of a crime enumerated in subsection a. of this section, does not have two or more prior convictions that require sentencing under subsection a. and has two or more prior convictions that would require sentencing under paragraph (1) of this subsection if the person had been convicted of a crime enumerated in paragraph (1). 

 

c.The provisions of this section shall not apply unless the prior convictions are for crimes committed on separate occasions and unless the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced was committed either within 10 years of the date of the defendant's last release from confinement for commission of any crime or within 10 years of the date of the commission of the most recent of the crimes for which the defendant has a prior conviction. 

 

d.The court shall not impose a sentence of imprisonment pursuant to this section, unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing after the conviction of the defendant and on written notice to the defendant of the ground proposed. The defendant shall have the right to hear and controvert the evidence against him and to offer evidence upon the issue. Prior convictions shall be defined and proven in accordance with N.J.S.2C:44-4. 

 

e.For purposes of this section, a term of life shall mean the natural life of a person sentenced pursuant to this section. Except that a defendant who is at least 70 years of age and who has served at least 35 years in prison pursuant to a sentence imposed under this section shall be released on parole if the full Parole Board determines that the defendant is not a danger to the safety of any other person or the community. 

 

L.1995,c.126,s.2; amended 2003, c.48.

2C:43-7.1. Life imprisonment without parole

 

2. a. Life Imprisonment Without Parole. A person convicted of a crime under any of the following: N.J.S.2C:11-3; subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:11-4; a crime of the first degree under N.J.S.2C:13-1, paragraphs (3) through (6) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2; N.J.S.2C:15-1; or section 1 of P.L.1993, c.221 (C.2C:15-2), who has been convicted of two or more crimes that were committed on prior and separate occasions, regardless of the dates of the convictions, under any of the foregoing sections or under any similar statute of the United States, this State, or any other state for a crime that is substantially equivalent to a crime under any of the foregoing sections, shall be sentenced to a term of life imprisonment by the court, with no eligibility for parole. 

 

b.Extended Term for Repeat Violent Offenders. A person shall be sentenced to an extended term of imprisonment pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-7 if: 

 

(1)The person is convicted of any of the following crimes: a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:11-4; a crime of the second or third degree under subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:12-1; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:13-1; a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-3 for aggravated criminal sexual contact under any of the circumstances set forth in paragraphs (3) through (6) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:15-1; a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:18-2; or a crime of the second degree under N.J.S.2C:39-4 for possession of a weapon with the purpose of using it unlawfully against the person of another, and the person has been convicted of any of the foregoing crimes or any of the crimes enumerated in subsection a. of this section or under any similar statute of the United States, this State, or any other state for a crime that is substantially equivalent to a crime enumerated in this subsection or in subsection a. of this section committed on two or more prior and separate occasions regardless of the dates of the convictions; or 

 

(2)The person is convicted of a crime enumerated in subsection a. of this section, does not have two or more prior convictions that require sentencing under subsection a. and has two or more prior convictions that would require sentencing under paragraph (1) of this subsection if the person had been convicted of a crime enumerated in paragraph (1). 

 

c.The provisions of this section shall not apply unless the prior convictions are for crimes committed on separate occasions and unless the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced was committed either within 10 years of the date of the defendant's last release from confinement for commission of any crime or within 10 years of the date of the commission of the most recent of the crimes for which the defendant has a prior conviction. 

 

d.The court shall not impose a sentence of imprisonment pursuant to this section, unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing after the conviction of the defendant and on written notice to the defendant of the ground proposed. The defendant shall have the right to hear and controvert the evidence against him and to offer evidence upon the issue. Prior convictions shall be defined and proven in accordance with N.J.S.2C:44-4. 

 

e.For purposes of this section, a term of life shall mean the natural life of a person sentenced pursuant to this section. Except that a defendant who is at least 70 years of age and who has served at least 35 years in prison pursuant to a sentence imposed under this section shall be released on parole if the full Parole Board determines that the defendant is not a danger to the safety of any other person or the community. 

 

L.1995,c.126,s.2; amended 2003, c.48.

2C:43-12 Supervisory treatment - pretrial intervention.

 

2C:43-12. Supervisory Treatment--Pretrial Intervention. a. Public policy. The purpose of sections 2C:43-12 through 2C:43-22 of this chapter is to effectuate a Statewide program of Pretrial Intervention. It is the policy of the State of New Jersey that supervisory treatment should ordinarily be limited to persons who have not previously been convicted of any criminal offense under the laws of New Jersey, or under any criminal law of the United States, or any other state when supervisory treatment would:

 

(1)Provide applicants, on an equal basis, with opportunities to avoid ordinary prosecution by receiving early rehabilitative services or supervision, when such services or supervision can reasonably be expected to deter future criminal behavior by an applicant, and when there is apparent causal connection between the offense charged and the rehabilitative or supervisory need, without which cause both the alleged offense and the need to prosecute might not have occurred; or

 

(2)Provide an alternative to prosecution for applicants who might be harmed by the imposition of criminal sanctions as presently administered, when such an alternative can be expected to serve as sufficient sanction to deter criminal conduct; or

 

(3)Provide a mechanism for permitting the least burdensome form of prosecution possible for defendants charged with "victimless" offenses, other than defendants who were public officers or employees charged with offenses that involved or touched their office or employment; or

 

(4)Provide assistance to criminal calendars in order to focus expenditure of criminal justice resources on matters involving serious criminality and severe correctional problems; or

 

(5)Provide deterrence of future criminal or disorderly behavior by an applicant in a program of supervisory treatment.

 

b.Admission of an applicant into a program of supervisory treatment shall be measured according to the applicant's amenability to correction, responsiveness to rehabilitation and the nature of the offense. There shall be a presumption against admission into a program of supervisory treatment for a defendant who was a public officer or employee whose offense involved or touched upon his public office or employment.

 

c.The decision and reasons therefor made by the designated judges (or assignment judges), prosecutors and program directors in granting or denying applications for supervisory treatment, in recommending and ordering termination from the program or dismissal of charges, in all cases shall be reduced to writing and disclosed to the applicant.

 

d.If an applicant desires to challenge the decision of the prosecutor or program director not to recommend enrollment in a program of supervisory treatment the proceedings prescribed under section 14 shall be followed.

 

e.Referral. At any time prior to trial but after the filing of a criminal complaint, or the filing of an accusation or the return of an indictment, with the consent of the prosecutor and upon written recommendation of the program director, the assignment judge or a judge designated by him may postpone all further proceedings against an applicant and refer said applicant to a program of supervisory treatment approved by the Supreme Court. Prosecutors and program directors shall consider in formulating their recommendation of an applicant's participation in a supervisory treatment program, among others, the following criteria: 

 

(1)The nature of the offense;

 

(2)The facts of the case;

 

(3)The motivation and age of the defendant;

 

(4)The desire of the complainant or victim to forego prosecution;

 

(5)The existence of personal problems and character traits which may be related to the applicant's crime and for which services are unavailable within the criminal justice system, or which may be provided more effectively through supervisory treatment and the probability that the causes of criminal behavior can be controlled by proper treatment;

 

(6)The likelihood that the applicant's crime is related to a condition or situation that would be conducive to change through his participation in supervisory treatment;

 

(7)The needs and interests of the victim and society;

 

(8)The extent to which the applicant's crime constitutes part of a continuing pattern of anti-social behavior;

 

(9)The applicant's record of criminal and penal violations and the extent to which he may present a substantial danger to others;

 

(10) Whether or not the crime is of an assaultive or violent nature, whether in the criminal act itself or in the possible injurious consequences of such behavior;

 

(11) Consideration of whether or not prosecution would exacerbate the social problem that led to the applicant's criminal act;

 

(12) The history of the use of physical violence toward others;

 

(13) Any involvement of the applicant with organized crime;

 

(14) Whether or not the crime is of such a nature that the value of supervisory treatment would be outweighed by the public need for prosecution;

 

(15) Whether or not the applicant's involvement with other people in the crime charged or in other crime is such that the interest of the State would be best served by processing his case through traditional criminal justice system procedures;

 

(16) Whether or not the applicant's participation in pretrial intervention will adversely affect the prosecution of codefendants; and

 

(17) Whether or not the harm done to society by abandoning criminal prosecution would outweigh the benefits to society from channeling an offender into a supervisory treatment program.

 

f.Review of Supervisory Treatment Applications; Procedure Upon Denial. Each applicant for supervisory treatment shall be entitled to full and fair consideration of his application. If an application is denied, the program director or the prosecutor shall precisely state his findings and conclusion which shall include the facts upon which the application is based and the reasons offered for the denial. If the applicant desires to challenge the decision of a program director not to recommend, or of a prosecutor not to consent to, enrollment into a supervisory treatment program, a motion shall be filed before the designated judge (or assignment judge) authorized pursuant to the rules of court to enter orders.

 

g.Limitations. Supervisory treatment may occur only once with respect to any defendant and any person who has previously received supervisory treatment under section 27 of P.L.1970, c.226 (C.24:21-27), shall not be eligible for supervisory treatment under this section. However, supervisory treatment, as provided herein, shall be available to a defendant irrespective of whether the defendant contests his guilt of the charge or charges against him.

 

h.Termination. Termination of supervisory treatment under this section shall be immediately reported to the assignment judge of the county who shall forward such information to the Administrative Director of the Courts. 

 

i.Appointment of Program Directors; Authorized Referrals. Programs of supervisory treatment and appointment of the program directors require approval by the Supreme Court with the consent of the assignment judge and prosecutor. Referrals of participants from supervisory treatment programs may be to any public or private office or agency, including but not limited to, programs within the probation service of the court, offering counseling or any other social service likely to aid in the rehabilitation of the participant and to deter the commission of other offenses.

 

j.Health Care Professional Licensing Board Notification. The program director shall promptly notify the State Board of Medical Examiners when a State licensed physician or podiatrist has been enrolled in a supervisory treatment program after he has been charged with an offense involving drugs or alcohol.

 

Amended 1979, c.178, s.88; 1987, c.106, s.14; 1989, c.300, s.22; 2007, c.49, s.9.

2C:43-7.2 Mandatory service of 85% of sentence for certain offenses.

 

2. a. A court imposing a sentence of incarceration for a crime of the first or second degree enumerated in subsection d. of this section shall fix a minimum term of 85% of the sentence imposed, during which the defendant shall not be eligible for parole.

 

b.The minimum term required by subsection a. of this section shall be fixed as a part of every sentence of incarceration imposed upon every conviction of a crime enumerated in subsection d. of this section, whether the sentence of incarceration is determined pursuant to N.J.S.2C:43-6, N.J.S.2C:43-7, N.J.S.2C:11-3 or any other provision of law, and shall be calculated based upon the sentence of incarceration actually imposed. The provisions of subsection a. of this section shall not be construed or applied to reduce the time that must be served before eligibility for parole by an inmate sentenced to a mandatory minimum period of incarceration. Solely for the purpose of calculating the minimum term of parole ineligibility pursuant to subsection a. of this section, a sentence of life imprisonment shall be deemed to be 75 years.

 

c.Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary and in addition to any other sentence imposed, a court imposing a minimum period of parole ineligibility of 85 percent of the sentence pursuant to this section shall also impose a five-year term of parole supervision if the defendant is being sentenced for a crime of the first degree, or a three-year term of parole supervision if the defendant is being sentenced for a crime of the second degree. The term of parole supervision shall commence upon the completion of the sentence of incarceration imposed by the court pursuant to subsection a. of this section unless the defendant is serving a sentence of incarceration for another crime at the time he completes the sentence of incarceration imposed pursuant to subsection a., in which case the term of parole supervision shall commence immediately upon the defendant's release from incarceration. During the term of parole supervision the defendant shall remain in release status in the community in the legal custody of the Commissioner of the Department of Corrections and shall be supervised by the State Parole Board as if on parole and shall be subject to the provisions and conditions of section 3 of P.L.1997, c.117 (C.30:4-123.51b).

 

d.The court shall impose sentence pursuant to subsection a. of this section upon conviction of the following crimes or an attempt or conspiracy to commit any of these crimes:

 

(1)N.J.S.2C:11-3, murder;

 

(2)N.J.S.2C:11-4, aggravated manslaughter or manslaughter;

 

(3)N.J.S.2C:11-5, vehicular homicide;

 

(4)subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:12-1, aggravated assault;

 

(5)subsection b. of section 1 of P.L.1996, c.14 (2C:12-11), disarming a law enforcement officer;

 

(6)N.J.S.2C:13-1, kidnapping;

 

(7)subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:14-2, aggravated sexual assault; 

 

(8)subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:14-2 and paragraph (1) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:14-2, sexual assault;

 

(9)N.J.S.2C:15-1, robbery;

 

(10) section 1 of P.L.1993, c.221 (C.2C:15-2), carjacking;

 

(11) paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:17-1, aggravated arson;

 

(12) N.J.S.2C:18-2, burglary;

 

(13) subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:20-5, extortion;

 

(14) subsection b. of section 1 of P.L.1997, c.185 (C.2C:35-4.1), booby traps in manufacturing or distribution facilities; 

 

(15) N.J.S.2C:35-9, strict liability for drug induced deaths;

 

(16) section 2 of P.L.2002, c.26 (C.2C:38-2), terrorism;

 

(17) section 3 of P.L.2002, c.26 (C.2C:38-3), producing or possessing chemical weapons, biological agents or nuclear or radiological devices; or

 

(18) N.J.S.2C:41-2, racketeering, when it is a crime of the first degree.

 

e.(Deleted by amendment, P.L.2001, c.129).

 

L.1997, c.117, s.2; amended 2001, c.79, s.16; 2001, c.129, s.1; 2002, c.26, s.19; 2007, c.341, s.6.

2C:43-11 Program of intensive supervision, eligibility.

 

2. a. No custodial sentence imposed pursuant to Chapter 43, 44 or 45 of Title 2C shall be changed to permit entry into any program of intensive supervision established pursuant to the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey if the inmate:

 

(1)Is serving a sentence for a conviction of any crime of the first degree; or

 

(2)Is serving a sentence for a conviction of any offense in which the sentencing court found that there is a substantial likelihood that the defendant is involved in organized criminal activity pursuant to N.J.S.2C:44-1a.(5); or

 

(3)Is serving any statutorily mandated parole ineligibility, or any parole ineligibility imposed by the court pursuant to subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:43-6 or section 6 of P.L.2007, c.49 (C.2C:43-6.5); or

 

(4)(Deleted by amendment, P.L.2008, c.30)

 

(5)Has previously been convicted of a crime of the first degree, or of any offense in any other jurisdiction which, if committed in New Jersey, would constitute a crime of the first degree and the inmate was released from incarceration on the first degree offense within five years of the commission of the offense for which the inmate is applying for intensive supervision.

 

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to preclude the program of intensive supervision from imposing more restrictive standards for admission.

 

b.Unless the inmate is within nine months of parole eligibility and has served at least six months of the sentence, no custodial sentence of an inmate serving a sentence for conviction of any crime of the second degree shall be changed to permit entry into any program of intensive supervision established pursuant to the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey, if, within 20 days of receipt of notice of the inmate's application, the county prosecutor or Attorney General objects in writing.

 

c.If an inmate's application for a change of custodial sentence to permit entry into any program of intensive supervision established pursuant to the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey is granted over the objection of the county prosecutor or the Attorney General, the order shall not become final for 20 days or until reconsideration by the Intensive Supervision Resentencing Panel in order to permit the county prosecutor or the Attorney General to appear personally or in writing, with notice to defense counsel, to request reconsideration of the application approval.

 

d.A victim of the offense for which the inmate was sentenced shall have the right to make a written statement or to appear at a proceeding regarding the application for a change of custodial sentence imposed pursuant to Chapter 43, 44 or 45 of Title 2C for entry into any program of intensive supervision established pursuant to the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey.

 

L.1993, c.123, s.2; amended 2007, c.49, s.8; 2008, c.30.

2C:44-1 Criteria for withholding or imposing sentence of imprisonment.

 

2C:44-1. a. In determining the appropriate sentence to be imposed on a person who has been convicted of an offense, the court shall consider the following aggravating circumstances:

 

(1)The nature and circumstances of the offense, and the role of the actor therein, including whether or not it was committed in an especially heinous, cruel, or depraved manner;

 

(2)The gravity and seriousness of harm inflicted on the victim, including whether or not the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the victim of the offense was particularly vulnerable or incapable of resistance due to advanced age, ill-health, or extreme youth, or was for any other reason substantially incapable of exercising normal physical or mental power of resistance;

 

(3)The risk that the defendant will commit another offense;

 

(4)A lesser sentence will depreciate the seriousness of the defendant's offense because it involved a breach of the public trust under chapters 27 and 30, or the defendant took advantage of a position of trust or confidence to commit the offense;

 

(5)There is a substantial likelihood that the defendant is involved in organized criminal activity;

 

(6)The extent of the defendant's prior criminal record and the seriousness of the offenses of which he has been convicted;

 

(7)The defendant committed the offense pursuant to an agreement that he either pay or be paid for the commission of the offense and the pecuniary incentive was beyond that inherent in the offense itself;

 

(8)The defendant committed the offense against a police or other law enforcement officer, correctional employee or fireman, acting in the performance of his duties while in uniform or exhibiting evidence of his authority; the defendant committed the offense because of the status of the victim as a public servant; or the defendant committed the offense against a sports official, athletic coach or manager, acting in or immediately following the performance of his duties or because of the person's status as a sports official, coach or manager;

 

(9)The need for deterring the defendant and others from violating the law; 

 

(10) The offense involved fraudulent or deceptive practices committed against any department or division of State government;

 

(11) The imposition of a fine, penalty or order of restitution without also imposing a term of imprisonment would be perceived by the defendant or others merely as part of the cost of doing business, or as an acceptable contingent business or operating expense associated with the initial decision to resort to unlawful practices;

 

(12) The defendant committed the offense against a person who he knew or should have known was 60 years of age or older, or disabled; and

 

(13) The defendant, while in the course of committing or attempting to commit the crime, including the immediate flight therefrom, used or was in possession of a stolen motor vehicle.

 

b.In determining the appropriate sentence to be imposed on a person who has been convicted of an offense, the court may properly consider the following mitigating circumstances:

 

(1)The defendant's conduct neither caused nor threatened serious harm;

 

(2)The defendant did not contemplate that his conduct would cause or threaten serious harm;

 

(3)The defendant acted under a strong provocation;

 

(4)There were substantial grounds tending to excuse or justify the defendant's conduct, though failing to establish a defense;

 

(5)The victim of the defendant's conduct induced or facilitated its commission;

 

(6)The defendant has compensated or will compensate the victim of his conduct for the damage or injury that he sustained, or will participate in a program of community service;

 

(7)The defendant has no history of prior delinquency or criminal activity or has led a law-abiding life for a substantial period of time before the commission of the present offense;

 

(8)The defendant's conduct was the result of circumstances unlikely to recur;

 

(9)The character and attitude of the defendant indicate that he is unlikely to commit another offense;

 

(10) The defendant is particularly likely to respond affirmatively to probationary treatment;

 

(11) The imprisonment of the defendant would entail excessive hardship to himself or his dependents;

 

(12) The willingness of the defendant to cooperate with law enforcement authorities;

 

(13) The conduct of a youthful defendant was substantially influenced by another person more mature than the defendant.

 

c. (1) A plea of guilty by a defendant or failure to so plead shall not be considered in withholding or imposing a sentence of imprisonment.

 

(2)When imposing a sentence of imprisonment the court shall consider the defendant's eligibility for release under the law governing parole, including time credits awarded pursuant to Title 30 of the Revised Statutes, in determining the appropriate term of imprisonment.

 

d.Presumption of imprisonment. The court shall deal with a person who has been convicted of a crime of the first or second degree, or a crime of the third degree where the court finds that the aggravating factor in paragraph (5) of subsection a. applies, by imposing a sentence of imprisonment unless, having regard to the character and condition of the defendant, it is of the opinion that his imprisonment would be a serious injustice which overrides the need to deter such conduct by others. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection e. of this section, the court shall deal with a person who has been convicted of theft of a motor vehicle or of the unlawful taking of a motor vehicle and who has previously been convicted of either offense by imposing a sentence of imprisonment unless, having regard to the character and condition of the defendant, it is of the opinion that his imprisonment would be a serious injustice which overrides the need to deter such conduct by others.

 

e.The court shall deal with a person convicted of an offense other than a crime of the first or second degree, who has not previously been convicted of an offense, without imposing a sentence of imprisonment unless, having regard to the nature and circumstances of the offense and the history, character and condition of the defendant, it is of the opinion that his imprisonment is necessary for the protection of the public under the criteria set forth in subsection a., except that this subsection shall not apply if the court finds that the aggravating factor in paragraph (5) of subsection a. applies or if the person is convicted of any of the following crimes of the third degree: theft of a motor vehicle; unlawful taking of a motor vehicle; eluding; if the person is convicted of a crime of the third degree constituting use of a false government document in violation of subsection c. of section 1 of P.L.1983, c.565 (C.2C:21-2.1); if the person is convicted of a crime of the third degree constituting distribution, manufacture or possession of an item containing personal identifying information in violation of subsection b. of section 6 of P.L.2003, c.184 (C.2C:21-17.3); if the person is convicted of a crime of the third or fourth degree constituting bias intimidation in violation of N.J.S.2C:16-1; if the person is convicted of a crime of the third degree under section 2 of P.L.1997, c.111 (C.2C:12-1.1); or if the person is convicted of a crime of the third or fourth degree under the provisions of section 1 or 2 of P.L.2007, c.341 (C.2C:33-29 or C.2C:33-30).

 

f.Presumptive Sentences. (1) Except for the crime of murder, unless the preponderance of aggravating or mitigating factors, as set forth in subsections a. and b., weighs in favor of a higher or lower term within the limits provided in N.J.S.2C:43-6, when a court determines that a sentence of imprisonment is warranted, it shall impose sentence as follows:

 

(a)To a term of 20 years for aggravated manslaughter or kidnapping pursuant to paragraph (1) of subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:13-1 when the offense constitutes a crime of the first degree;

 

(b)Except as provided in paragraph (a) of this subsection to a term of 15 years for a crime of the first degree;

 

(c)To a term of seven years for a crime of the second degree;

 

(d)To a term of four years for a crime of the third degree; and

 

(e)To a term of nine months for a crime of the fourth degree.

 

In imposing a minimum term pursuant to 2C:43-6b., the sentencing court shall specifically place on the record the aggravating factors set forth in this section which justify the imposition of a minimum term.

 

Unless the preponderance of mitigating factors set forth in subsection b. weighs in favor of a lower term within the limits authorized, sentences imposed pursuant to 2C:43-7a.(1) shall have a presumptive term of life imprisonment. Unless the preponderance of aggravating and mitigating factors set forth in subsections a. and b. weighs in favor of a higher or lower term within the limits authorized, sentences imposed pursuant to 2C:43-7a.(2) shall have a presumptive term of 50 years' imprisonment; sentences imposed pursuant to 2C:43-7a.(3) shall have a presumptive term of 15 years' imprisonment; and sentences imposed pursuant to 2C:43-7a.(4) shall have a presumptive term of seven years' imprisonment.

 

In imposing a minimum term pursuant to 2C:43-7b., the sentencing court shall specifically place on the record the aggravating factors set forth in this section which justify the imposition of a minimum term.

 

(2)In cases of convictions for crimes of the first or second degree where the court is clearly convinced that the mitigating factors substantially outweigh the aggravating factors and where the interest of justice demands, the court may sentence the defendant to a term appropriate to a crime of one degree lower than that of the crime for which he was convicted. If the court does impose sentence pursuant to this paragraph, or if the court imposes a noncustodial or probationary sentence upon conviction for a crime of the first or second degree, such sentence shall not become final for 10 days in order to permit the appeal of such sentence by the prosecution.

 

g.Imposition of Noncustodial Sentences in Certain Cases. If the court, in considering the aggravating factors set forth in subsection a., finds the aggravating factor in paragraph a.(2), a.(5), a.(10), or a.(12) and does not impose a custodial sentence, the court shall specifically place on the record the mitigating factors which justify the imposition of a noncustodial sentence.

 

h.Except as provided in section 2 of P.L.1993, c.123 (C.2C:43-11), the presumption of imprisonment as provided in subsection d. of this section shall not preclude the admission of a person to the Intensive Supervision Program, established pursuant to the Rules Governing the Courts of the State of New Jersey.

 

amended 1979, c.178, s.93; 1981, c.290, s.40; 1983, c.317, s.1; 1986, c.172, s.4; 1987, c.76, s.36; 1989, c.23, s.4; 1993, c.123, s.1; 1993, c.132, s.1; 1993, c.135; 1995, c.6, s.2; 2001, c.443, s.7; 2003, c.55, s.4; 2003, c.184, s.4; 2007, c.83, s.3; 2007, c.341, s.7; 2010, c.30, s.1.

2C:44-3 Criteria for sentence of extended term of imprisonment.

 

2C:44-3. The court may, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person who has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree to an extended term of imprisonment if it finds one or more of the grounds specified in subsection a., b., c., or f. of this section. If the grounds specified in subsection d. are found, and the person is being sentenced for commission of any of the offenses enumerated in N.J.S.2C:43-6c. or N.J.S.2C:43-6g., the court shall sentence the defendant to an extended term as required by N.J.S.2C:43-6c. or N.J.S.2C:43-6g., and application by the prosecutor shall not be required. The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person who has been convicted of a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-2 or N.J.S.2C:14-3 to an extended term of imprisonment if the grounds specified in subsection g. of this section are found. The court shall, upon application of the prosecuting attorney, sentence a person to an extended term if the imposition of such term is required pursuant to the provisions of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4). The finding of the court shall be incorporated in the record.

 

a.The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and is a persistent offender. A persistent offender is a person who at the time of the commission of the crime is 21 years of age or over, who has been previously convicted on at least two separate occasions of two crimes, committed at different times, when he was at least 18 years of age, if the latest in time of these crimes or the date of the defendant's last release from confinement, whichever is later, is within 10 years of the date of the crime for which the defendant is being sentenced.

 

b.The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and is a professional criminal. A professional criminal is a person who committed a crime as part of a continuing criminal activity in concert with two or more persons, and the circumstances of the crime show he has knowingly devoted himself to criminal activity as a major source of livelihood.

 

c.The defendant has been convicted of a crime of the first, second or third degree and committed the crime as consideration for the receipt, or in expectation of the receipt, of anything of pecuniary value the amount of which was unrelated to the proceeds of the crime or he procured the commission of the offense by payment or promise of payment of anything of pecuniary value.

 

d.Second offender with a firearm. The defendant is at least 18 years of age and has been previously convicted of any of the following crimes: 2C:11-3, 2C:11-4, 2C:12-1b., 2C:13-1, 2C:14-2a., 2C:14-3a., 2C:15-1, 2C:18-2, 2C:29-5, 2C:39-4a., or has been previously convicted of an offense under Title 2A of the New Jersey Statutes or under any statute of the United States or any other state which is substantially equivalent to the offenses enumerated in this subsection and he used or possessed a firearm, as defined in 2C:39-1f., in the course of committing or attempting to commit any of these crimes, including the immediate flight therefrom.

 

e.(Deleted by amendment, P.L.2001, c.443). 

 

f.The defendant has been convicted of a crime under any of the following sections: N.J.S.2C:11-4, N.J.S.2C:12-1b., N.J.S.2C:13-1, N.J.S.2C:14-2a., N.J.S.2C:14-3a., N.J.S.2C:15-1, N.J.S.2C:18-2, N.J.S.2C:29-2b., N.J.S.2C:29-5, N.J.S.2C:35-5, and in the course of committing or attempting to commit the crime, including the immediate flight therefrom, the defendant used or was in possession of a stolen motor vehicle.

 

g.The defendant has been convicted of a crime under N.J.S.2C:14-2 or N.J.S.2C:14-3 involving violence or the threat of violence and the victim of the crime was 16 years of age or less.

 

For purposes of this subsection, a crime involves violence or the threat of violence if the victim sustains serious bodily injury as defined in subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:11-1, or the actor is armed with and uses a deadly weapon or threatens by word or gesture to use a deadly weapon as defined in subsection c. of N.J.S.2C:11-1, or threatens to inflict serious bodily injury.

 

h.(Deleted by amendment, P.L.2007, c.341).

 

Amended 1979, c.178, s.95; 1981, c.31, s.3; 1990, c.32, s.8; 1990, c.87, s.4; 1993, c.132, s.2; 1994, c.127, s.2; 1994, c.130, s.4; 1995, c.211, s.3; 1997, c.120; 1999, c.160, s.4; 2001, c.443, s.8; 2007, c.341, s.8.

2C:44-5. Multiple Sentences; Concurrent and Consecutive Terms.

 

a.Sentences of imprisonment for more than one offense. When multiple sentences of imprisonment are imposed on a defendant for more than one offense, including an offense for which a previous suspended sentence or sentence of probation has been revoked, such multiple sentences shall run concurrently or consecutively as the court determines at the time of sentence, except that: 

 

(1)The aggregate of consecutive terms to a county institution shall not exceed 18 months; and 

 

(2)Not more than one sentence for an extended term shall be imposed.

 

There shall be no overall outer limit on the cumulation of consecutive sentences for multiple offenses. 

 

b.Sentences of imprisonment imposed at different times. When a defendant who has previously been sentenced to imprisonment is subsequently sentenced to another term for an offense committed prior to the former sentence, other than an offense committed while in custody: 

 

(1)The multiple sentences imposed shall so far as possible conform to subsection a. of this section; and 

 

(2)Whether the court determines that the terms shall run concurrently or consecutively, the defendant shall be credited with time served in imprisonment on the prior sentence in determining the permissible aggregate length of the term or terms remaining to be served; and (3)When a new sentence is imposed on a prisoner who is on parole, the balance of the parole term on the former sentence shall not be deemed to run during the period of the new imprisonment unless the court determines otherwise at the time of sentencing. 

 

c.Sentence of imprisonment for offense committed while on parole. When a defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for an offense committed while on parole in this State, such term of imprisonment and any period of reimprisonment that the parole board may require the defendant to serve upon the revocation of his parole shall run consecutively unless the court orders these sentences to run concurrently. 

 

d.Multiple sentences of imprisonment in other cases. Except as otherwise provided in this section, multiple terms of imprisonment shall run concurrently or consecutively as the court determines when the second or subsequent sentence is imposed. 

 

e.Calculation of concurrent and consecutive terms of imprisonment.

 

(1)When terms of imprisonment run concurrently, the shorter terms merge in and are satisfied by discharge of the longest term. 

 

(2)When terms of imprisonment run consecutively, the terms are added to arrive at an aggregate term to be served equal to the sum of all terms. 

 

f.Suspension of sentence or probation and imprisonment; multiple terms of suspension and probation. When a defendant is sentenced for more than one offense or a defendant already under sentence is sentenced for another offense committed prior to the former sentence: (1)The court shall not sentence to probation a defendant who is under sentence of imprisonment, except as authorized by paragraph (2) of subsection b. of N.J.S.2C:43-2; 

 

(2)Multiple periods of suspension or probation shall run consecutively, unless the court orders these sentences to run concurrently from the date of the first such disposition; 

 

(3)When a sentence of imprisonment in excess of one year is imposed, the service of such sentence shall satisfy a suspended sentence on another count or prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation, unless the suspended sentence or probation has been violated in which case any imprisonment for the violation shall run consecutively; and 

 

(4)When a sentence of imprisonment of one year or less is imposed, the period of a suspended sentence on another count or a prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation shall run during the period of such imprisonment, unless the suspended sentence or probation has been violated in which case any imprisonment for the violation shall run consecutively. 

 

g.Offense committed while under suspension of sentence or probation. When a defendant is convicted of an offense committed while under suspension of sentence or on probation and such suspension or probation is not revoked: 

 

(1)If the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment in excess of one year, the service of such sentence shall not satisfy the prior suspended sentence or sentence to probation, unless the court determines otherwise at the time of sentencing; 

 

(2)If the defendant is sentenced to imprisonment of one year or less, the period of the suspension or probation shall not run during the period of such imprisonment; and 

 

(3)If sentence is suspended or the defendant is sentenced to probation, the period of such suspension or probation shall run concurrently with or consecutively to the remainder of the prior periods, as the court determines at the time of sentence. 

 

h.Offense committed while released pending disposition of a previous offense. When a defendant is sentenced to imprisonment for an offense committed while released, with or without bail, pending disposition of a previous offense, the term of imprisonment shall run consecutively to any sentence of imprisonment imposed for the previous offense, unless the court, in consideration of the character and conditions of the defendant, finds that imposition of consecutive sentences would be a serious injustice which overrides the need to deter such conduct by others. 

 

i.Sentence of imprisonment for assault on corrections employee. Any term of imprisonment imposed on an inmate of a State or county correctional facility for an assault on a Department of Corrections employee, an employee of a county correctional facility, an employee of a State juvenile facility or a county juvenile detention facility, county sheriff's department employee or any State, county or municipal law enforcement officer while in the performance of his duties shall run consecutively to any term of imprisonment currently being served and to any other term imposed for any other offense committed at the time of the assault. 

 

L.1978, c.95; amended 1979, c.178, s.97; 1983, c.462; 1993, c.160; 1993, c.223; 2001, c.16.

2C:44-6 Procedure on sentence; presentence investigation and report.

2C:44-6 Procedure on sentence; presentence investigation and report.

a.The court shall not impose sentence without first ordering a presentence investigation of the defendant and according due consideration to a written report of such investigation when required by the Rules of Court. The court may order a presentence investigation in any other case.

b.The presentence investigation shall include an analysis of the circumstances attending the commission of the offense, the defendant's history of delinquency or criminality, family situation, financial resources, including whether or not the defendant is an enrollee or covered person under a health insurance contract, policy or plan, debts, including any amount owed for a fine, assessment or restitution ordered in accordance with the provisions of Title 2C, any obligation of child support including any child support delinquencies, employment history, personal habits, the disposition of any charge made against any codefendants, the defendant's history of civil commitment, any disposition which arose out of charges suspended pursuant to N.J.S.2C:4-6 including the records of the disposition of those charges and any acquittal by reason of insanity pursuant to N.J.S.2C:4-1, and any other matters that the probation officer deems relevant or the court directs to be included. The defendant shall disclose any information concerning any history of civil commitment. The report shall also include a medical history of the defendant and a complete psychological evaluation of the defendant in any case in which the defendant is being sentenced for a first or second degree crime involving violence and:

(1)the defendant has a prior acquittal by reason of insanity pursuant to N.J.S.2C:4-1 or had charges suspended pursuant to N.J.S.2C:4-6; or

(2)the defendant has a prior conviction for murder pursuant to N.J.S.2C:11-3, aggravated sexual assault or sexual assault pursuant to N.J.S.2C:14-2, kidnapping pursuant to N.J.S.2C:13-1, endangering the welfare of a child which would constitute a crime of the second degree pursuant to N.J.S.2C:24-4, or stalking which would constitute a crime of the third degree pursuant to section 1 of P.L.1992, c.209 (C.2C:12-10); or

(3)the defendant has a prior diagnosis of psychosis.

The court, in its discretion and considering all the appropriate circumstances, may waive the medical history and psychological examination in any case in which a term of imprisonment including a period of parole ineligibility is imposed. In any case involving a conviction of N.J.S.2C:24-4, endangering the welfare of a child; N.J.S.2C:18-3, criminal trespass, where the trespass was committed in a school building or on school property; section 1 of P.L.1993, c.291 (C.2C:13-6), attempting to lure or entice a child with purpose to commit a criminal offense; section 1 of P.L.1992, c.209 (C.2C:12-10), stalking; or N.J.S.2C:13-1, kidnapping, where the victim of the offense is a child under the age of 18, the investigation shall include a report on the defendant's mental condition.

The presentence investigation shall also include information regarding the defendant's history of substance abuse and substance abuse treatment, if any, including whether the defendant has sought treatment in the past. If any of the factors listed in subsection b. of section 1 of P.L.2012, c.23 (C.2C:35-14.1) apply, the presentence report shall also include consideration of whether the defendant may be a drug dependent person as defined in N.J.S.2C:35-2.

The presentence investigation shall include an analysis of whether the defendant should be required to submit to a professional diagnostic assessment within the meaning of paragraph (1) of subsection a. of N.J.S.2C:35-14 in any case where: the defendant may be a drug dependent person as defined in N.J.S.2C:35-2; the defendant is eligible to be considered for a sentence to special probation pursuant to N.J.S.2C:35-14; and the court has not already ordered the defendant to submit to any such diagnostic assessment in regard to the pending matter.

The presentence report shall also include a report on any compensation paid by the Victims of Crime Compensation Agency as a result of the commission of the offense and, in any case where the victim chooses to provide one, a statement by the victim of the offense for which the defendant is being sentenced. The statement may include the nature and extent of any physical harm or psychological or emotional harm or trauma suffered by the victim, the extent of any loss to include loss of earnings or ability to work suffered by the victim and the effect of the crime upon the victim's family. The probation department shall notify the victim or nearest relative of a homicide victim of his right to make a statement for inclusion in the presentence report if the victim or relative so desires. Any such statement shall be made within 20 days of notification by the probation department.

The presentence report shall specifically include an assessment of the gravity and seriousness of harm inflicted on the victim, including whether or not the defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the victim of the offense was particularly vulnerable or incapable of resistance due to advanced age, disability, ill-health, or extreme youth, or was for any other reason substantially incapable of exercising normal physical or mental power of resistance.

c.If, after the presentence investigation, the court desires additional information concerning an offender convicted of an offense before imposing sentence, it may order any additional psychological or medical testing of the defendant.

d.Disclosure of any presentence investigation report or psychiatric examination report shall be in accordance with law and the Rules of Court, except that information concerning the defendant's financial resources shall be made available upon request to the Victims of Crime Compensation Agency or to any officer authorized under the provisions of section 3 of P.L.1979, c.396 (C.2C:46-4) to collect payment on an assessment, restitution or fine and that information concerning the defendant's coverage under any health insurance contract, policy or plan shall be made available, as appropriate to the Commissioner of Corrections and to the chief administrative officer of a county jail in accordance with the provisions of P.L.1995, c.254 (C.30:7E-1 et al.).

e.The court shall not impose a sentence of imprisonment for an extended term unless the ground therefor has been established at a hearing after the conviction of the defendant and on written notice to him of the ground proposed. The defendant shall have the right to hear and controvert the evidence against him and to offer evidence upon the issue.

f.(Deleted by amendment, P.L.1986, c.85).

amended 1981, c.481, s.1; 1983, c.317, s.2; 1986, c.85, s.1; 1991, c.329, s.7; 1994, c.92; 1995, c.254, s.7; 1996, c.39, s.2; 1997, c.216, s.2; 2009, c.328, s.2; 2012, c.23, s.6.